Making and Using Tools


A Handbook on Japanning by William N. Brown, 1913

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CONTENTS

PAGE

SECTION I.

INTRODUCTION.

1-5

  

Priming or Preparing the Surface to be Japanned

4

  

The First Stage in the Japanning of Wood or of Leather without a Priming

5

  

 

 

SECTION II.

JAPAN GROUNDS.

6-19

  

White Japan Grounds

7

  

Blue Japan Grounds

9

  

Scarlet Japan Ground

9

  

Red Japan Ground

10

  

Bright Pale Yellow Grounds

10

  

Green Japan Grounds

10

  

Orange-Coloured Grounds

11

  

Purple Grounds

11

  

Black Grounds

11

  

Common Black Japan Grounds on Metal

12

  

Tortoise-shell Ground

12

  

Painting Japan Work

13

  

Varnishing Japan Work

17

  

 

 

SECTION III.

JAPANNING OR ENAMELLING METALS.

20-28

  

Enamelling Bedstead Frames and similar large pieces

24

  

Japanning Tin, such as Tea-trays and similar goods

25

  

Enamelling Old Work

27

  

 

 

SECTION IV.

THE ENAMELLING AND JAPANNING STOVE—PIGMENTS SUITABLE FOR JAPANNING WITH NATURAL LACQUER—MODERN METHODS OF JAPANNING WITH NATURAL JAPANESE LACQUER.

29-48

  

Appliances and Apparatus used in Japanning and Enamelling     

29

  

Modern Japanning and Enamelling Stoves

34

  

Stoves heated by direct fire

34

  

Stoves heated by hot-water pipes

36

  

Pigments suitable for Japanning with Natural Lacquer

45

  

White Pigments

45

  

Red Pigments

46

  

Blue Pigment

46

  

Yellow Pigments

46

  

Green Pigment

46

  

Black Pigment

46

  

Methods of Application

46

  

Modern Methods of Japanning and Enamelling with Natural Japanese Lacquer

47

  

 

 

SECTION V.

COLOURS FOR POLISHED BRASS.—MISCELLANEOUS.

49-57

  

Painting on Zinc or on Galvanized Iron

49

  

Bronzing Compositions

49

  

Golden Varnish for Metal

51

  

Carriage Varnish

51

  

Metal Polishes

51

  

Black Paints  

52

  

Black Stain for Iron

53

  

Varnishes for Ironwork

55

  

 

 

SECTION VI.

PROCESSES FOR TIN-PLATING.

58-60

  

Amalgam Process

59

  

Immersion Process

59

  

Battery Process

59

  

Weigler's Process

60

  

Hern's Process

60

  

 

 

SECTION VII.

GALVANIZING.

61-66

  

 

 

INDEX.

67-69

HANDBOOK ON JAPANNING

SECTION I
INTRODUCTION

Japanning, as it is generally understood in Great Britain, is the art of covering paper, wood, or metal with a more or less thick coating of brilliant varnish, and hardening the same by baking it in an oven at a suitable heat. 

It originated in Japan—hence its name—where the natives use a natural varnish or lacquer which flows from a certain kind of tree, and which on its issuing from the plant is of a creamy tint, but becomes black on exposure to the air.  It is mainly with the application of "japan" to metallic surfaces that we are concerned in these pages.  Japanning may be said to occupy a position midway between painting and porcelain enamelling, and a japanned surface differs from an ordinary painted surface in being far more brilliant, smoother, harder, and more durable, and also in retaining its gloss permanently, in not being easily injured by hot water or by being placed near a fire; while real good japanning is characterized by great lustre and adhesiveness to the metal to which it has been applied, and its non-liability to chipping—a fault which, as a rule, stamps the common article.

If the English process of japanning be more simple and produces a less durable, a less costly coating than the Japanese method, yet its practice is not so injurious to the health.  Indeed, it is a moot point in how far the Japanese themselves now utilize their classical process, as the coat of natural japan on all the articles exhibited at the recent Vienna exhibition as being coated with the natural lacquer, when recovered after six months' immersion in sea water through the sinking of the ship, was destroyed, although it stood perfectly well on the articles of some age. 

In the English method, where necessary, a priming or undercoat is employed.  It is customary to fill up any uneven surface, any minute holes or pores, and to render the surface to be japanned uniformly smooth.  But such an undercoat or priming is not always applied, the coloured varnish or a proper japan ground being applied directly on the surface to be japanned.  Formerly this surface usually, if not always, received a priming coat, and it does so still where the surface is coarse, uneven, rough, and porous.  But where the surface is impervious and smooth, as in the case of metallic surfaces, a priming coat is not applied. It is also unnecessary to apply such a coat in the case of smooth, compact, grained wood.


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